2022-07-25 23:48:07|已帮助：0 人
Negative Factual Information Questions，一般译作否定事实信息题，有时也被称为反向事实信息题、排除列举题或选非题，在阅读十大题型中出错率一直较高。出错的原因，往往被简单归结于“粗心大意”。诚然，在其他题型的解答过程中，同学们往往都是在努力寻找与原文说法最为接近的选项，而遇到否定事实信息题，由于思维惯性，在看到与原文说法基本一致但本该被排除的选项的时候，往往会忘记题目中那个大大的EXCEPT或NOT，导致错选。
Negative Factual Information Questions
These questions ask you to verify what information is true and what information is NOT true or not included in the passage based on information that is explicitly stated in the passage. To answer this kind of question, first locate the relevant information in the passage. Then verify that three of the four answer choices are true and that the remaining choice is false. Remember, for this type of question, the correct answer is the one that is NOT true.
Spartina alterniflora, known as cordgrass, is a deciduous, perennial flowering plant native to the Atlantic coast and the Gulf Coast of the United States. It is the dominant native species of the lower salt marshes along these coasts, where it grows in the intertidal zone (the area covered by water some parts of the dayand exposed others).
According to paragraph 1, each of the following is true of Spartina alrerniflora EXCEPT:
A. It rarely flowers in salt marshes.
B. It grows well in intertidal zones.
C. It iscommonly referred to as cordgrass.
D. It occurs naturally along the Gulf Coast and the Atlantic coast of the United States.
Why were these hundreds of thousands of settlers—most of them farmers, some of them artisans—drawn away from the cleared fields and established cities and villages of the East? Certain characteristics of American society help to explain this remarkable migration. The European ancestors of some Americans had for centuries lived rooted to the same village or piece of land until some religious, political, or economic crisis uprooted them and drove them acrossthe Atlantic. Many of those who experienced this sharp break there after lackedthe ties that had bound them and their ancestors to a single place. Moreover,European society was relatively stratified; occupation and social status were inherited. In American society, however, the class structure was less rigid;some people changed occupations easily and believed it was their duty to improve their social and economic position. As a result, many Americans were an inveterately restless, rootless, and ambitious people. Therefore, these social traits helped to produce the nomadic and daring settlers who kept pushing westward beyond the fringes of settlement. In addition, there were other immigrants who migrated west in search of new homes, material success, and better lives.
According to paragraph 2, all of the following are reasons why Americans migrated westward EXCEPT
A. the desire to move from one place to the next
B. the hope of improving their socioeconomic status
C. the opportunity to change jobs
D. the need to escape religious or political crises
本题正确答案D选项来自原文中的这句话The European ancestors of some Americans had for centuries lived rooted to the same village or piece of land until some religious, political, or economic crisis uprooted them and drove them across the Atlantic. 很多同学在答题的过程中只记得看到了“因为宗教或政治而迁徙”这个内容，从而认为D选项与原文说法一致，就想当然的按照惯例排除了这个选项导致错选。但只要稍微细心，就能够意识到这是部分美国人的欧洲祖先迁移到美国的原因，而不是美国人西迁的原因，反而是可以直选的正确答案。
而另一道来自Role of Play in Development这篇文章的例题：
Play is not without considerable costs to the individual animal. Play is usually veryactive, involving movement in space and, at times, noise making. Therefore, it results in the loss of fuel or energy that might better be used for growth orfor building up fat stores in a young animal. Another potential cost of this activity is greater exposure to predators since play is attention-getting behavior. Great activities also increase the risk of injury in slipping or falling.
According to paragraph 3, each of the following is a cost to animals that engage in play EXCEPT
A. exposure to predators
B. abuildup of fat stores
C. a lossof fuel that could be used for growth
D. riskof injury from slipping or falling
正确答案B选项看似在文章中有直接对应的内容“building up fat stores”，但仔细阅读会发现，失去用以形成脂肪的能量才是玩耍的代价之一，而脂肪本身的积累并不是。甚至这里的B和C选项可视作一对矛盾选项，非此即彼，必有一为正确答案。
同样，在Industrialization in the Netherlands and Scandinavia这篇文章中有一道题：
The political institutions of the four countries posed no significant barriers to industrialization or economic growth. The nineteenth century passed relatively peacefully for these countries, with progressive democratization taking place in all of them. They were reasonably well governed, without notable corruptionor grandiose state projects, although in all of them the government gave some aid to railways, and in Sweden the state built the main lines. As small countries dependent on foreign markets, they followed a liberal trade policy in the main, though a protectionist movement developed in Sweden. In Denmark and Sweden agricultural reforms took place gradually from the late eighteenth century through the first half of the nineteenth, resulting in a new class of peasant land owners with a definite market orientation.
According to paragraph 5, each of the following contributed positively to theindustrialization of the Netherlands and Scandinavia EXCEPT
A. Generally liberal trade policies
B. Huge projects undertaken by the state
C. Relatively uncorrupt governments
D. Relatively little social or political disruption
正确答案B选项也似乎与原文中的“grandiose state projects”一致，但联系前半句话中的without就会意识到正好与问题中的EXCEPT对应，这个答案也是可以直选出来的。而这道题的B和C选项也是原文中的并列结构，被处理成了正好矛盾的选项。